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As a true gift of nature, the pleasure of coffee is born on a plant. And a shrub of the Rubiaceae family and its genus, Coffea, there are various species; of these the most prized, the one that has the best qualities to ensure a great drink, and the Coffea Arabica. It replaces the three quarters of world production.In addition to the marginal Coffea Liberica and Coffea Excelsa, the only other species that has a wide spread and a significant economic weight is the Coffea Canephora, more commonly known as Robusta. As with all the Coffea lhabitat natural is in the tropical range of Asia, Africa and America; The Arabica, in addition to having great talents, is also particularly sensitive to heat and alum, so it prefers high altitude climates, at least over 900 meters s.l.m. And the higher the plant grows the better the organoleptic qualities of toasted beans.This is not the case for the Robusta, which, due to its remarkable tropical climatic resistance, is able to grow within 200/300 meters, in areas that are more convenient and convenient for managing a plantation. Unfortunately, this strength of the plant is later found in the organoleptic characteristics of the coffee that it produces.And on the one hand, this more body-to-drink, on the other it increases the bitter and astringent taste and the caffeine content, which varies between 2 and 4% versus 1.1-1.7% of Arabica. Again about height, it should be noted that a Coffea plant can reach 12 meters; for obvious reasons of harvestiness, shrubs on plantations are however kept below 3 meters.MORE SPECIES OF COFFEEThere are about eighty species of Cofee growing in the wild and cultivated world, but few are those that have significant importance and utility for trade. They vary in height, variety of leaves, color and intensity of flower perfume, the size and color of the seeds, to resist climatic and parasitic adversities.Arabica, Robusta and Liberia are the first three types of coffee grown in the most important producing countries. From their grafts, subtypes are obtained, which are characterized by the names of the countries in which the crops were started.Coffea ArabicaCoffea Arabica, a very valuable species, cultivated and selected several centuries ago, represents three-quarters of the world's coffee production. It is originally from Arabia, with rather small, flattened and elongated grains of green-copper, intense scent. It grows luxuriantly (in the wild state reaches 9 meters high) in minerals rich land, especially in volcanic fields located over 688 meters of distillery, while the ideal temperature has to go around 20 °. The most notorious subtleties are the Moka, Maragogipe, San Ramon, Columnaris, Bourbon. Arabica products in Brazil are called Brazilian Coffee; those of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Guatemala, Salvador, Haiti, Costa Rica, San Domingo are called "milds" (soavi) and are very fine and valuable. There are also African Arabian origin.Larabica gives a "full bodied" coffee, rich in aroma and vigorous taste, with pleasant acidity. Its basic flavor is fairly constant, but there are varieties due to different crops, where experts recognize tones of taste that remind cocoa (so they are called "chocolates") or honey. In a well-balanced mixture, the Arabica is the most precious part.Coffea RobustaCoffea Robusta is a variety that can exceed 12 meters in height; vegetation at altitudes between sea level and 688 meters, has faster growth, better performance and more resistant to parasites. It flowers on several occasions and its grains are round, irregular and light brown to grayish-brown and are richer in caffeine. Discovered in the Congo by Emil Laurent in 1898, this plant is widespread especially in Africa, Asia and Indonesia. It accounts for about a quarter of world production. With Robusta grains, a lighter, lighter, lighter, sometimes light and slightly woody coffee is also available, including clove or rosemary, which often recalls the scents of the production lands.Coffea Liberica Originally from the forests of Liberia and Costa DAvorio, this plant is grown only in tropical and subtropical bas-reliefs of Africa and South America, Malaysia and the Philippines. The plant is long-lasting, fast-growing, of extraordinary strength and size. Flattened, very irregular grains have a color that ranges from brown to yellow, but are now poorly treated in the world market. However, the plant is used for grafts capable of creating new varieties.The three types of coffea shown begin to produce the fruits around the third and fourth year of life, yielding the highest yield between the ninth and the twelfth year, diminishing production after the twenty-fifth year and become unproductive after the forty. Hence, crops should be replaced by plants in decline.
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